system functions documentation
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# haku system library




haku comes with a set of builtin functions, called the _system library._


This is a reference for these functions.




## Preamble: how to read this reference




Each function comes with a _signature description_.


These descriptions read like this:




```haku


(stroke


(thickness number)


(color rgba)


(position vec)


scribble)


```




The first element is always the function's name  in this case `stroke`.


Following this are `(argumentname argumenttype)` pairs, which describe the arguments that need to be passed to the function.


The last element is always the type of data this function produces.




The argument name usually does not matter when calling the function  it is only used for documentation purposes.


The one exception is arguments called `...`, which signify that zero or more arguments can be passed to the function at that position.




The argument _type_ however is important.


If you try to use a function with the wrong type of value as its argument, it will fail with an error.


For example, consider a brush where we pass a number as `stroke`'s `color` and `position` arguments.




```haku


(stroke 1 1 1)


```




This brush will fail to render, since `stroke` expects an `rgba` as its 2nd argument.




With that said, there are several types of values in haku that can be passed into, and returned by functions.




 `*`  special type used to signify that any value may be passed into the function.


 `()`  also known as _nil_, means _no value._


 `boolean`  either `false` or `true`. Indicates truth or falsehood, used in `if` conditions.


 `number`  a real number, with 32 bits of precision.


 `vec`  a 4dimensional vector, composed of four `number`s.


 `rgba`  an RGBA color, composed of four `number`s.


 `fn`  a function, as returned by `(fn (x) x)` literals.


 `list`  a list of values, where each value can have a different type (even `list` itself.)


 `shape`  a mathematical shape.


 `shapelike`  anything that can be turned into a `shape` using `toshape`.


 `scribble`  something that can be drawn on the wall.




Additionally, the syntax `(typea typeb ...)` may be used to signify that one of the listed types is accepted or returned.




## Math




```haku


(+


(... number)


number)


```




`+` takes an arbitrary amount of arguments and sums them together.


When there are zero arguments, it returns `0`.




```haku


(


(a number)


(... number)


number)


```




When there is only one argument, `` returns `a` with the opposite sign.


Otherwise, it performs an arbitrary amount of subtractions from `a`, and returns the result.


Note that unlike `+` and `*`, at least one argument must be present.




haku does not have syntactic support for negative numbers  the proper way to negate a number is using this function `( 1)`.




```haku


(*


(... number)


number)


```




`*` takes an arbitrary amount of arguments and multiplies them together.


When there are zero arguments, it returns `1`.




```haku


(/


(a number)


(... number)


number)


```




`/` returns `a` divided by all the numbers from `...`.


Note that unlike `+` and `*`, at least one argument must be present.




## Logic




The following functions are used to compare values and work with `boolean`s.




```haku


(not


(b *)


boolean)


```




If `b` is `()` or `false`, `not` returns `true`.


Otherwise it returns `false`.




```haku


(=


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)




(<>


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)


```




`=` returns `true` if `a` and `b` are equal.


Whether two values are considered equal depends on their type:




 If the type of the two values differs, `false` is returned.


 If the two values are `number`s:


 If any of the values are `NaN`, `false` is returned.


 Otherwise `true` is returned if the two numbers have the exact same bit representation.


 If the two values are `vec`s, `true` is returned if each of their `number` components is equal to each other using the rules above.


 Likewise with `rgba`s.


 All other types of values use _reference_ equality  `true` is returned only if `a` and `b` are located in the same place in memory.


This more or less means that the values are considered equal if they are produced by the same call to a system function, in time.




`<>` returns `(not (= a b))`.




```haku


(<


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)




(<=


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)




(>


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)




(>=


(a *)


(b *)


boolean)


```




`<` returns `true` if `a` is less than `b`, and `<=` returns `true` if `a` is less than _or_ equal to `b`.




Order is only welldefined for numbers.


Other types may assume an arbitrary but consistent ordering  `()` may be less than `true`, or it may not be less than `true`, but this will not change between executions of the program.




`(> a b)` is the same as `(< b a)`.


`(>= a b)` is the same as `(<= b a)`.









Note that `and` and `or` are currently missing from this list.


You can implement them using regular functions as a replacement.




```haku


(def and


(fn (a b)


(if a (if b true false) false)))




(def or


(fn (a b)


(if a true (if b true false))))


```




## Vectors




```haku


(vec


vec)




(vec


(x number)


vec)




(vec


(x number)


(y number)


vec)




(vec


(x number)


(y number)


(z number)


vec)




(vec


(x number)


(y number)


(z number)


(w number)


vec)


```




Creates a new `vec` from zero to four number values.




A `vec` always has four dimensions.


If any of the arguments are omitted, its corresponding dimension is initialized to zero.




```haku


(.x


(v vec)


number)




(.y


(v vec)


number)




(.z


(v vec)


number)




(.w


(v vec)


number)


```




`.x`, `.y`, `.z`, and `.w` extract the individual components of a `vec`.









Note that mathematical operations are currently not defined for vectors.


You may define your own vector operations like so:




```haku


(def +v ; Vector addition


(fn (a b)


(vec


(+ (.x a) (.x b))


(+ (.y a) (.y b))


(+ (.z a) (.z b))


(+ (.w a) (.w b)))))




; Likewise for subtraction, multiplication, and division.


```




Note that hakudefined vector operations like these are more costly the more components they operate on.


Therefore, it's recommended to only define them for two dimensions, unless you really need more.




```haku


(def +v2 ; 2D vector addition


(fn (a b)


(vec


(+ (.x a) (.x b))


(+ (.y a) (.y b)))))


```




## Colors




```haku


(rgba


(r number)


(g number)


(b number)


(a number)


rgba)


```




Creates a new `rgba` with the given color channels.


Note that unlike `vec`, all color channels have to be provided to form an `rgba`.




```haku


(.r


(color rgba)


number)




(.g


(color rgba)


number)




(.b


(color rgba)


number)




(.a


(color rgba)


number)


```




`.r`, `.g`, `.b`, and `.a` extract color channels out of an `rgba`.









haku uses RGBA values in a normalized `0` to `1` range rather than `0` to `255`, which may be unfamiliar if you're coming from other image editing software.


This is because it's easier to do math on normalized colors.


For example, consider multiplicatively blending two colors.




```haku


; This is how you can multiply two colors together.


(def *rgba


(fn (a b)


(rgba


(* (.r a) (.r b))


(* (.g a) (.g b))


(* (.b a) (.b b))


(* (.a a) (.a b)))))


```




If haku represented colors using an 8bit `0` to `255` range instead, to multiply two colors together, you would have to divide them by `255` to get them back into the correct range.




```haku


; NOTE: This example does NOT work correctly.


(def *rgba


(fn (a b)


(rgba


(/ (* (.r a) (.r b)) 255)


(/ (* (.g a) (.g b)) 255)


(/ (* (.b a) (.b b)) 255)


(/ (* (.a a) (.a b)) 255))))


```




Note that haku does not clamp colors to the `0` to `1` range.


It is perfectly valid to have a color that is out of range or even `NaN`, but when drawing scribbles:




 `∞` is clamped back to `1`.


 `∞` is clamped back to `0`.


 any scribble with a `NaN` color is ignored.




Note that just like vectors, arithmetic operations on colors are currently not defined.




Before scribbles are drawn to the wall, colors are converted to 8bit integers for more efficient rasterization and storage.


This means some loss of precision will happen, which may cause issues with brushes like this one:




```haku


(stroke


128


(rgba 0 0 0 0.1)


(vec))


```




If you try to to use this brush to fill up a single spot with black, you will notice that despite all the math suggesting so, the color will end up gray instead.




## Data structures




```haku


(list


(... *)


list)


```




`list` is used to construct a new list.




Currently, lists do not have any operations defined on them.


However, lists made up solely of scribbles are scribbles themselves, which allows for combining scribbles together.




## Shapes




```haku


(toshape


(value *)


(() shape))


```




Converts the given value to a shape.




 For `shape`, clones the shape that was passed in.


 For `vec`, returns a point `shape`.


 For anything else, returns `()`.




```haku


(line


(start vec)


(end vec)


shape)


```




Creates a line segment shape with the provided `start` and `end` points.




```haku


(rect


(position vec)


(size vec)


shape)




(rect


(x number)


(y number)


(width number)


(height number)


shape)


```




Creates a rectangle shape with its topleft corner at `position`, with a given `size` stretching from the topleft corner.




The alternative 4argument version takes in the rectangle's X/Y coordinates, width, and height as separate arguments instead of aggregating them into a `vec`.




```haku


(circle


(center vec)


(radius number)


shape)




(circle


(x number)


(y number)


(radius number)


shape)


```




Creates a circle shape, with its center at `center`, with the provided radius.




The alternative 3argument version takes in the circle's center X/Y coordinates as separate arguments instead of aggregating them into a `vec`.




## Scribbles




```haku


(stroke


(thickness number)


(color rgba)


(shape shapelike)


scribble)


```




Creates a stroke scribble, which outlines the provided shape with a stroke of the given thickness and color.




Point shapes are drawn as squares, and `line` shapes have square caps at the line's endpoints.




```haku


(fill


(color rgba)


(shape shapelike)


scribble)


```




Creates a fill scribble, which fills in the entire area of the provided shape with a solid color.




Since this requires the shape to have a surface area, this does not do anything when point and `line` shapes are passed in.

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